The republic of fear
If youíre reading this, you are probably not buffeted by daily waves of physical terror. You may fear job
loss or emotional loss, but you probably donít fear that somebody is going to slash your throat or that a gang will invade your house come dinnertime, carrying away your kin and property. We take a basic level of order for granted.
But billions of people live in a different emotional landscape, enveloped by hidden terror. Many of these people live in the developing world.
When we send young people out to help these regions, we tell them they are there to tackle ďpoverty,Ē using the sort of economic designation weíre comfortable with. We usually assume
that scarcity is the big challenge to be faced. We send them to dig wells or bring bed nets or distribute food or money, and, of course, thatís wonderful work.
But as Gary A. Haugen and Victor Boutros point out in their gripping and perspective-altering book, ďThe Locust Effect,Ē these places are not just grappling with poverty. They are marked by disorder, violence and man-inflicted suffering.
ďThe relentless threat of violence is part of the core subtext of their lives, but we are unlikely to see it, and they are unlikely to tell us about it. We would be wise, however, to not be fooled ó because, like grief, the thing we cannot see may be the deepest part of their day.Ē
People in many parts of the world simply live beyond the apparatus of law and order. The District of Columbia spends about $850 per person per year on police. In Bangladesh, the government spends less than $1.50 per person per year on police. The cops are just not there.
In the United States, there is one prosecutor for every 12,000 citizens. In Malawi, there is one prosecutor for every 1.5 million citizens. The prosecutors are just not there.
Even when there is some legal system in place, itís not designed to impose law and order for the people. It is there to protect the regime from the people. The well-connected want a legal system that can be bought and sold.
Haugen and Boutros tell the story of an 8-year-old Peruvian girl named Yuri whose body was found in the street one morning, her skull crushed in, her legs wrapped in cables and her underwear at her ankles. The evidence pointed to a member of one of the richer families in the town, so the police and prosecutors destroyed the evidence. Her clothing went missing. A sperm sample that could have identified the perpetrator was thrown out. A bloody mattress was sliced down by a third, so that the bloodstained spot could be discarded.
Yuriís family wanted to find the killer, but they couldnít afford to pay the prosecutor, so nothing was done. The family sold all their livestock to hire lawyers, who took the money but abandoned the case. These sorts of events are utterly typical ó the products of legal systems that range from the arbitrary to the Kafkaesque.
We in the affluent world live on one side of a great global threshold. Our fundamental security was established by our ancestors. We tend to assume that the primary problems of politics are economic and that the injustices of the world can be addressed with economic levers. When empires like the Soviet Union collapse, we send in economists with privatization plans instead of cops to help create rule of law. When thuggish autocracies invade their neighbors we impose economic sanctions.
But people without our inherited institutions live on the other side of the threshold and have a different reality. They live within a contagion of chaos. They live where the primary realities include violence, theft and radical uncertainty. Their world is governed less by long-term economic incentives and more by raw fear. In a world without functioning institutions, predatory behavior and the passions of domination and submission blot out economic logic.
The primary problem of politics is not creating growth. Itís creating order. Until that is largely achieved, life can be nasty, brutish and short.
Haugen is president of a human rights organization called the International Justice Mission, which tries to help people around the world build the institutions of law. One virtue of his group is that it stares evil in the eyes and helps local people confront the large and petty thugs who inflict such predatory cruelty on those around them. Not every aid organization is equipped to do this, to confront elemental human behavior when it exists unrestrained by effective law. Itís easier to avoid this reality, to have come-together moments in daytime.
Police training might be less uplifting than some of the other stories that attract donor dollars. But, in every society, order has to be wrung out of exploitation. Unless cruelty is tamed, poverty will persist.
David Brooks is a columnist for The New York Times.